These notes contain detailed definitions, summaries, case studies, examples and explanations that cover all content for Module 5 for HSC Biology. These topics include: 1) Reproduction, 2) Cell Replication, 3) DNA and Polypeptide Synthesis, 4) Genetic Variation, and 5) Inheritance Patterns in a Population. The notes also contain supportive images, flow charts and diagrams to facilitate learning via visual summaries. These notes can be used as a comprehensive reference for both assessments, trial exams and the HSC exam. The notes have been compiled from class notes, tutorials, textbooks and further research. Thoroughly reading through these notes will provide extensive knowledge on the entire course and give broad context to all of the required topic areas.