HUMAN BIOLOGY UNIT 3 & 4 NOTES - 90% AVERAGE

By Jacinta · From Iona Presentation College · In 2017
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1 Science Inquiry 8 2 Chemical Messengers 10 2.1 Endocrine Glands 10 2.2 Hormones 10 2.3 hypothalamus and pituitary gland 12 2.4 pineal gland 13 2.5 the thyroid gland 13 2.6 the thymus 14 2.7 the adrenal glands 14 2.8 the pancreas 15 2.9 the gonads 15 2.10 other endocrine tissues 15 2.11 Cascade Hormones 16 2.12 Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism 16 3 Nerve Cells and Nerve Impulses 17 3.1 nerve cells 17 3.2 sensory receptors: 18 3.3 nerve impulses: 19 3.4 Transmission of nerve impulses: 20 3.4.2 Depolarisation 20 3.5 effect of chemicals on transmission of nerve impulses: 21 4 Divisions of the Nervous System 22 4.1 afferent (sensory) division: 22 4.2 efferent (motor) division: 22 4.3 autonomic nervous system: 23 4.4 hormonal vs. Nervous coordination: 24 5 The Central Nervous System 25 5.1 protecting of central nervous system: 25 5.2 The brain 26 5.3 the cerebruM 26 5.4 Hypothalamus 27 5.5 Medulla Oblongata 27 5.6 Spinal Cord 28 6 Detecting and Regulating Change 31 6.1 receptors 31 6.2 reflexes 31 6.3 homeostasis 33 6.4 stimulus- response and feedback: 33 7 Homeostasis of Body Temperature & Fluids 34 7.1 Thermoregulation 34 7.2 regulation of composition of body fluids 38 8 Homeostasis of Blood Sugar & Gas Concentrations 40 8.1 Regulation of blood sugar 40 8.2 regulation of gas concentrations (control of breathing) 42 8.3 heart rate & blood pressure 43 9 Disruptions to Homeostasis 44 10 Protection Against Invaders 46 11: Specific Resistance to Infection 51 12: Mutations and Gene Pools 57 13: Techniques in Biotechnology 59 14: Evolutionary Mechanisms 65 15: Evidence for Evolution 68 15.1 Comparative studies in biochemistry: 69 16: Fossil Evidence for Evolution 73 For fossil formation 76 17 Primate Evolution 77 17.1 Primates 77 Classifying primates 77 Characteristics of primates 77 17.2 Evolutionary trends 77 18 Evolutionary Trends in Hominids 79 19 Human Ancestors 81 20 Cultural Evolution 83

Added June 2022