Ancient History - Sparta Complete Notes and Evidence

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Detailed Band 6 notes - includes evidence (quotes and archaeology) and analytical points.

Based on the topic's HSC syllabus:

Survey: • The historical and geographical context, including; o geographical setting, natural features, and resources of ancient Sparta o significant sites: Sparta

Focus of study: • Social structure and political organisation, including: o the Great Rhetra: the issue of Lycurgus o roles and privileges of the two kings
o government: ephorate, gerousia, ekklesia o social structure and occupations: Spartiates, periokoi, ‘inferiors’, helots o the Spartan army: training (agoge), composition
o control of the helots: the military, syssitia, krypteia o role and status of women: land ownership, inheritance, education • The economy, including: o land ownership: agriculture, kleroi, helots o technology: weapons, armour, pottery
o economic roles of the periokoi and helots, economic exchange: use of iron bars, trade • Religion, death, and burial, including: o gods and goddesses: Artemis Orthia, Poseidon, Apollo o myths and legends: Lycurgus and the Dioscuri o festivals: Hyakinthia, Gymnopaedia, Karneia
o religious role of the kings o funerary customs and rituals
• Cultural and everyday life, including: o art: sculpture, painted vases, bone, and ivory carving o architecture: Amyklaion, Menelaion, the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia o writing and literature: Alcman and Tyrtaeus o Greek writers’ views of Sparta: Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Aristotle, Pausanias, Plutarch o leisure activities, marriage customs

Added February 2023